As a result, we are much more aware of the effect of the Discovery of the New World, as the Europeans conceived it, upon the Americas, than the effect that the opening up of new lands had upon Europe. If we were more aware of the changes that the discoveries caused, we might be willing to concede that these discoveries were a basic factor in the end of the Middle Ages.
For some, it was a tremendous discovery; for others, it was a catastrophe. It constitutes a clear demarcation in history, because the discovery of America would call into question a great deal of knowledge about the Earth.
Furthermore, that is why historians chose this date to define the beginning of a new historical period: The success of the expedition led by Christopher Columbus, who, at least officially, was the first European to set foot on the soil of America, has all too often made us forget the multiple expeditions during the Middle Ages, over land or by sea, as well as the discoveries of the explorers.
In particular, there was the fabulous odyssey of Marco Polo, the Venetian merchant who followed the silk road to China, the mystical voyage of Saint Brendan and the Norse or Viking settlement in Newfoundland.
The voyage of Columbus would encourage Europeans to seek a passage to the East in order to exploit the riches attributed to this region. However, at the dawn of the Renaissance, many unfounded beliefs still held currency. In fact, although since Antiquity it was known that the Earth was round, the Catholic Church and a number of scientists continued to assert that the planet was flat and rectangular.
Gaps remained in geographical knowledge. Certain explorers still believed in the existence of mythical countries, such as the kingdom of Prester John thought to be located in Ethiopia, or that of King Solomon, which concealed, according to legend, countless riches.
Introduction show In the ninth century, what we now know as the nation of France was part of the Carolingian Empire, a vast realm covering much of western and central Europe.
When the Empire was divided by treaty inthree kingdoms were created and it is from the western kingdom, West Francia, that France—eventually—evolved.
From onwards this kingdom was ruled by the Capetian dynasty. Though a kingdom by name, West Francia was politically and territorially fragmented. Regions such as Flanders, Burgundy, Normandy and Aquitaine had their own princes and operated as virtually independent principalities.
French society was structured along feudal lines: There was no sense of nationhood; loyalties were local rather than national.
Coronation of Hugues Capet, 1st quarter of 14th century, from the Grandes Chroniques de France Hugh Capet, who was elected king inwas just one of many powerful nobles in the realm and the territories under his direct control were not particularly substantial.
Something else set Capet apart: This sense of spiritual prestige associated with the monarchy is something that later kings would exploit to the full.
|Encounters: With whom, where and when?||Comment Tobacco, potatoes and turkeys came to Europe from America.|
|Early exploration and colonization||The Egyptians kept written records using a writing system known as hieroglyphics.|
Between the eleventh and early fourteenth centuries Capetian Kings worked hard at consolidating royal power and authority through a combination of administrative, financial, judicial, and military reforms and strategies.
A centralized, bureaucratic system of government began, slowly, to replace the feudal order. Louis IX —70 established a parlement that would become the supreme court of appeal over and above seigneurial or ecclesiastical courts ; he also instituted a chamber of accounts an early treasury and introduced a royal coinage.
The monarchy gained territory, prestige, and tax revenues through its battles against the English and its participation in the Crusades. During this period, France, like much of Europe, also benefited from social, demographic, technological, and economic developments.
A rise in the population stimulated an increase in agricultural yields as land was cleared for arable use. Harvests were also helped by technical innovations such as iron horseshoes, the water mill, and the moldboard and wheeled plow.
An increase in disposable income among the landowners encouraged trade and industry. As France entered the fourteenth century, then, the superiority of royal authority over noble might had been established and France was well on its way towards becoming a leading power in Europe.
France — show Map from the Catalan Atlas,by illuminator Abraham Cresques The achievements that had been made between and were threatened by the calamitous events of the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries.
In this period France experienced the terrors and depredations of famine —11; —17, after uncommonly cold weather and bad harveststhe Black Death —48, with further visitations after this date war, rebellion and unrest. War with England was nothing new; Capetian kings had spent much of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries attempting to take back territories in the hands of the English.
When the three sons of Philip IV died in quick succession, Edward III claimed that he, as son of the daughter of Philip, was the rightful heir to the throne. The number of disorderly and undisciplined soldiers often mercenaries at large in the country took its toll: In such hard times, the people resented the increasing tax demands made by the king and sometimes expressed their anger in open revolt as in the series of peasant uprisings that occurred in known as the Jacquerie.
For certain people of the common villages, without any head or ruler, assembled together in Beauvoisin. In the beginning they said how the noblemen of the realm of France, knights and squires, shamed the realm, and that it should be a great wealth to destroy them all; and each of them said it was true, and said all with one voice: Though it took some time, France did recover from these ordeals and continued its progress towards unity and centralization.
Indeed, the country was able to glean some benefit from all the trials and tribulations. The significant decrease in population made labour a valuable resource and peasants enjoyed higher wages, a better standard of living, and a new level of freedom.In the s, China owned the greatest seagoing fleet in the world, up to 3, ships at its peak.
(The U.S. Navy today has only ). Some of them were five times the size of the ships being. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more.
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A background essay on the Ming Dynasty, its powerful trade networks and diplomatic missions as far as Africa and the Red Sea, and the domestic tensions that ultimately changed the course of world history. In Chinese, China knows itself as Zhong Guoor the "Middle Kingdom." It thought of itself as not.
Causes of the Age of Exploration. In his mind he had reached the eastern end of the rich lands of India and China described in the thirteenth century by the Venetian explorer Marco Polo. large groups had to convert religions.
Most people found this to be realistic, and the process did not end until In northern Europe (north. Though China is still making the move from low-end to high-end manufacturing, it has made enough progress to avoid the negative side effects of globalization’s decline, and it will not be as.
Causes and Effects of European Exploration in America Nick Pellicano, Abigail Duclos, Isabelle Martin, Blake Martin Some basic effects of Europeans coming to North America are that the Native Americans caught new diseases which included smallpox, influenza, measles, and chicken pox.